The Controversial Third Ethic of Permaculture

Permaculture’s core is rooted in the philosophy’s adherence to three equal ethics. The first two, Earth Care and People Care, have been widely accepted by the community for what they are – straight-forward and logical. The third ethic, however, has been the subject of some debate among permaculture practitioners for many years. In fact, the…

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The Seven Layers of a Forest

Layers are one of the many tools used to design and implement functional ecosystems which are sustainable and of direct benefit to humans. Mature ecosystems have a large number of relationships between the component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects and animals. Because trees, plants, etc grow to different heights it is extremely…

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